WaterVitt procedure Specifications

Water-degerminating-equipments are available on the market. However, they have a lot of major technical disadvantages, especially those that are used in developing countries:
Solutions for the particular issues:
1. Laminar waterflow
There is a round swirlplate with holes, where the water flows through, in front of the water inlet inside the reactor. This plate is installed diagonally. Whereby the water gets swirled and this causes a consistent irradiation. Furthermore, a higher retention period is achieved.
2. Hazard to skin (erythema) and eyes (conjunctivitis)
Erythema is the redness of skin caused through ultraviolet radiance. An actinic reaction causes a swelling of the cells inside the skin, redness and later on flaking of dead layers of the skin.
Already a small dosis of UV-C rays in the range of 253,7 nm that reach the eyes cause painful infection of the conjunctive tissue – conjunctivitis, because the eyes are not protected through cornea like other body parts.
The swirlplate, as mentioned under point 1, prevents that UV-rays get through outwards even if the equipment is not unplugged. This is especially important when used in developing countries. It is prevented because the swirlplate is located at a distance in front of the water inlet. There are no holes on the swirplate above the inlet. Therefore the inlet is covered for the eyes. The holes are located outside the inlet where the water flows through. This is very important because radiation can cause serious illnesses in a split second.
3. Flow rate is only adjustable externally
Die Drallplatte besteht aus zwei runden Scheiben, die Bohrungen am Rand liegen exakt übereinander.
Die untere Scheibe ist feststehend und die obere drehbar.
Durch Drehen der oberen Scheibe werden die Löcher der oberen Scheibe verdeckt und somit die Durchflußmenge verringert.
So kann die durchfließende Wassermenge genau den Druckverhältnissen, der Dosisleistung zur Inaktivierung von Mikroorganismen, dem Transmissonsgrad usw. angepaßt werden.
4. Heavy decrease of efficiency through hightened surface temperature of the radiator
Concerning UV-C rays, as all discharge lamps, temperature is in relation to the UV-yield. The Hg-low pressure resonance line is generated the strongest when the right steam pressure is created in the discharge tube. The ideal pressure is set in an ambient temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. The flask temperature is 40 degrees Celsius in an open system. In most of the UV-degerminating-equipments on the market, the radiator is located in a protective tube made out of quartz glass which is surrounded by flowing water. The radiators’ heat output in the protective tube can lead to heat accumulation and therefore enormously reducing the UV-efficiency.
The construction of the equipments were changed to an effect that water is lead through a quartz glass tube and one or more radiators are located in the open air space between the glass tube and the outer shell. In most cases an ideal temperature of the radiators’ tube-barrier is accomplished due to the large surface of the outer metalcoat and better heat conduction. In extreme cases the temperature is measured with ordinary electronic circuits and if necessary, filtered air is blown along a small diaphragm pump through the equipment. Radiator-capacity, of ten to twenty times higher, is required if warm water flows through the equipment, where the radiators are located in the quarzglass tube. The temperature does not matter with WaterVitt equipments. The low radiator-capacity can be maintained. Therefore new application areas can be introduced in industral countries, for example legionella prevention in hot-water systems. A UV-equipment is built in the circulation circuit. Thereby the boiler and the major part of the tubing up to the tap can be degerminated.
5. Bad reflectance of the used material
In the equipment, where the radiator is located inside the glas tube, the water comes in contact with the outer metal shell which has to be made out of stainless steel. But stainless steel has a very low reflection rate of 25 to 30%. The shell can be made or coated by other UV-proof materials so that no water can come in contact.
for example out of
  • untreated aluminium 40 – 60 %
  • treated aluminium 60 – 89 %
  • anodized aluminium 65 – 75 %
  • magnesium oxide 75 - 88 %
  • calcium carbonate 70 - 80 %

6. Difficult cleaning
It is required with equipments on the market that they are rinsed with acid approximately every two weeks to remove developed, germinated mucilage which can recontaminate water because a mechanical cleansing is not possible. With WaterVitt, infrequent cleansing is only necessary because there is no clogging on the smooth glass wall and algae is destroyed. An ordinary bottle brush will do if cleansing is still required. A self-acting cleansing can be provided for special applications which works without energy efficiency but only with distribution pressure.
7. Low transmission-rate
There is a strong reduction of the sterilization rate when water is contaminated through sediments, suspended solids, metal compounds, etc. This can have the result that certain areas are not degerminated and there is an increased germination when radiation is minimized. All producers have the same problem with direct radiation when water flows through the equipment without pretreatment. Water is very tarnished through washed up earth-masses, especially in flood plains. Therefore a simple procedure was developed. A second tube is placed inside the quartz glass tube which is closed at the ends. Depending on the contamination, a thin or broad film can be created through the glasstube diameter where the water has to flow through and an adequate transmission rate is achieved. A radiator can be placed inside the additional glass tube whereby the film is radiated from the inside and outside. The equipments’ advantage is that degermination is available instantly and a complex filtration is not necessary. A cascade flow of water and its direct radiation is implicitly not advised due to risk of accidents.
8. Organic compounds can only be oxidated through secondary treatment
A radiator should be used which generates texture-destroying rays in the range of 254 nm and creates ozone out of atmospheric oxygen below 200 nm. Air is blown through the equipment and Ozone is created. This Ozone is added to the water. The oxidation product and the excess ozone escape through an aspirator which is disposed downstream to a charcoal absorber.
9. Very expensive UV-sensors
A glass top is laminated with four-type luminescent material. This converts the UV-rays, which aren’t visible, into visible light and are processed through a simple photoelectric cell. Lenses should be installed for use in developing countries to verify the function of the rays.

In some developing countries without AC mains power a degermination with photo-voltaic equipments is the only possibility. A lot of money can be saved through the advancements as described because the rays, solar generator, adjuster and the battery can be dimensioned considerably smaller.

Knowledge of the year’s altitude of the sun is also important. This can be determined instantly through a PC-program. Every spot on the earth can be calculated and the solar generator can be adjusted properly. All parameters were covered in two projects in Kenia and Somalia with PC-support and in addition, the equipments were optimized.

Please note that this is only a short outtake of improved possibilities. 35 patent claims were accepted. 24 additional claims are in the process of being tested. Therefore there are countless combination possibilities on site according to the requirements.