Degermination methods Chloric gas

Blessing and curse of chlorine:
The most common disinfectant in drinking-water-treatment is chloric gas
Chlorine is a very reactive chemical substance which inherently in only found in compound with other elements.
Due to its strong poisonous action, concentrations of three grams of pure chlorine per aerial-cubic meter can already lead to death after a few breaths of air. For this reason the consumptive gas was used on people and mammals in the First World War as the first chemical fighting weapon.
On the other hand chlorine is useful for its germicidal qualities and also for human health. The substance is required as a disinfectant in water-treatment as well as swimming-pools.
In current standard indirect chloric gas procedures a chlorine solution is compounded at first, which then is added to the water that needs to be treated.
Modern dosing-, measurement-, and control technology permits the application of chlorine without exceeding the limit of 10mg/l trihalogenmethane (haloforms) but at the same time assuring a safe disinfection.
In areas where chlorine is not recommended because of the exposed substances in the water (e.g. humic acid) there is an alternative in using chlorine dioxide due to its non-haloform-producing qualities.
The dissolving of chloric gas in water leads to a hydrolisis. Underchloric acid and hydrochloric acid are created. In turn, the developed acid is seperated subject to pH-value.
Status quo:
Chlorine is the most used disinfectant. However, since 1974 it is known that chlorination of water leads to a development of volatile organic chlorine compounds.
These byproducts are created through reactions of loose chlorine with organic material. Most of the known byproducts are so-called trihalomethanes (THM) including chloroform which definitely cause cancer on animals. Chloramin is under suspicion in causing allergies and is reponsible for chlorine odor and pharmacy- or swimming pool – odor of chlorinated water.
Countless studies about trihalomethanes implicate a connection between chlorination of drinking- and swimming pool-water and the hightened risk of bladder,- colon-, rectum-, and lung-cancer in people. Due to this a drinking water guideline was passed by the European Community in 1980 which defines a maximum value of 1 microgram per liter for volatile organohalogens.
Currently half of the entire drinking water is being chlorinated in the Federal Republic of Germany although there are alternative disinfection-technologies.
Due to the above named potential risks it is reckoned that the market share of chloric gas disinfection will drop to about 50% in the next five to ten years and will be replaced by other disinfection-methods.