Degermination methods Hypochlorite

Chlorination with hypochlorite-solutions is feasible beside chlorination of water with chloric gas. Especially in cases of proportionally small water-amounts without the need of large equiptional effort.
In these procedures hypochlorite (sodium-, calciumhypochlorite, chlorinated lime amongst others) is solved or added in solid form to the water that needs to be treated.
A hypochlorite-solution (chlorine bleach liquor) has the advantage of a smaller safety risk compared to chloric gas. But the disadvantages are higher costs in chemicals, higher chemical volume and therefore more efforts in transport and storage.
Contrary to chloric gas, sodium-hypochlorite-solutions are used preferably in small waterworks with low water delivery, low specific chlorine-addition, lacking technical supervision due to own specialized staff, irregular utility-occupancy with operational staff (e.g. at night), close constructing housing in the area of the waterwork (chloric gas cloud, security risk), etc.
As opposed to liquid sodium-hypochlorite, calcium-hypochlorite are in the form of tablets or granulate material. Calcium-hypochlorite is not suitable for continuous disinfection of drinking-water because opposite to chloric gas, the price for active chlorine is ten times higher. Calcium-hypochlorite is preferred as an emergency-reserve in cases of malfunctions (better durability and shelf life contrary to sodium-hypochlorite).
Hypochlorite-solutions react alkalescent and contain 150 – 170 g chlorine per liter. A chlorine-portion can be reduced through exposure of light and storage (warmth). Even contamination, for example traces of heavy metal, can enforce degradation.

In recent times hypochlorite hit the headlines as a disinfectant. Newest scientific insight link the use of all chlorine compounds with creating objectionable byproducts, for example trihalomethanes. These byproducts are under suspicion in being carcinogenic.